Section 5 - Resources
5.1 Thinking and teaching strategies
5.2 The development of the motor car and bicycle
5.3 Text types
5.4 Inclusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
5.6 Additional resources
5.2 Development of the motor car and bicycle
Leonardo da Vinci
Sketch - 1490
1770 Nicholas Cugnot built a steam tractor that moved at walking pace.
1790 The forerunner of the bicycle, the Celerifere, was made by count Mede de Sivrac in France. It had a wooden frame and wheels and was propelled like a scooter with no steering mechanism.
1810 Scotsman john McAdam introduced a road surfacing method - tarmacadam.
1817 German, Karl von Drais developed a bicycle which could be steered. commonly known as the 'hobby horse', it had a padded seat and armrest.
1834 First electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport in the USA.
1835 The first known electric car was a small model built by Professor Stratingh in the Dutch town of Gröningen.
1847 moses Farmer built the first two passenger electric vehicle.
1860 In France, Pierre and Ernest Michaux moved the pedals and cranks to the larger front wheel axle and the Velocifere (or Velocipede) was produced. Jean-joseph Lenoir invented a two stroke internal combustion engine that ran on coal gas.
1865 An electric vehicle was not considered a viable option until Frenchman, Gaston Plante, invented the storage battery.
1870 The 'ordinary' bicycle or 'penny farthing' was produced. This bicycle, with its large front wheel and smaller rear wheel gave increased speed and a more comfortable ride for the cyclist.
1875 The first 'ordinary' bicycle was imported into Australia.
1876 The first four stroke internal combustion engine was invented by Nikolaus otto in Germany.
1877 In America, Albert pope, the 'father of the bicycle industry' built the columbia, a modern style bicycle.
1885 The first commercially successful 'Safety' bicycle design, with wheels of equal size, was built by john Starley in England. This bicycle had a chain drive to the rear wheel and an adjustable saddle. The third version of this bicycle, the Starley rover, was produced in 1888 and provided the general shape of bicycle frames for the next 60 years.
1885 Carl Benz in Germany, developed the first car with an internal combustion engine. It was a 3-wheeled vehicle, capable of travelling at 1/2 hp.
gottleib Daimler fitted an internal combustion engine to a wooden frame to create the first motorised cycle.
1886 Daimler developed a 4-wheeled 1 1/2 hp vehicle in Germany. It had a 1.1 kw petrol driven vertical internal combustion engine.
Ransom E. olds built his 3-wheeled steam car.
1888 The first patent for pneumatic bicycle tyres was issued in Britain to a Scot, john boyd Dunlop. Until this time, bicycle wheels were made of wood or metal and had no tyres.1889 gottleib Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach combined the gasoline engine, gearbox and steering mechanism in a horse carriage frame - the 'horseless carriage'.
1890 Daimler motor company was founded.
1894 The Panhard was the first car to be fitted with the engine at the front.
1895 In France, the Michelin Brothers improved on Dunlop's tyre by making a beaded edge, suitable for motor vehicles.
The Panhard-Levassor was the first car with an enclosed body. F W Lancaster built the first English car.
Herbert Austin, in England, built the first wolseley.
75 cars entered United States of America's first automobile race but only 2 finished, the Benz and the Duryea.
1896 In England, the locomotive Act (commonly known as the Red Flag Act) was abandoned and motor vehicles were allowed to travel at a maximum speed of 12 mph without pilots or red flags in front. The first Daimler was made at coventry, England. First road fatality was at Crystal Palace, london, England: "Mrs Bridgett Driscoll run down by a car going at a tremendous pace like a fire engine - as fast as a good horse could gallop.
The driver said he had rung his bell and shouted and that his car which had a maximum speed of 8 mph was doing 4 mph at the fatal moment."
Henry ford built a motor car with 2 horizontal cylinders and a 2-speed gear, called the Quadricycle.
Graft and Smith of Australia built the first front wheel drive petrol car. louis Renault, in France, built a car with a differential gear incorporated in the back axle, where, for practical purposes, it has remained ever since.1897 H J Lawson introduced a Daimler motor omnibus to the streets of london. This was a 17-seater which operated in the Marble Arch - notting Hill Gate district.
1898 The coaster brake was fitted on bicycles. Many accessories became available and the bicycle was widely used for military, sport and general transport purposes.
1901 Electric taxi cabs appeared in New York.
1903 The ford motor company Limited was founded. Driver's licences became compulsory in England. The legal speed limit in England was raised from 12 to 20 mph.
1904 Henry Royce undertook to make a vehicle that would become the 'best car in the world'. He set exacting standards of workmanship. His vehicle was taken up by two partners in a motor vehicle agency firm, C S rolls and Claude johnson. Automatic car transmission was invented in the USA.
1908 The rolls royce company was founded with the introduction of the 40/50 hp Silver Ghost. The first model T Ford appeared.
1911 Henry Ford introduced the first moving assembly line and mass production of the automobile began in earnest at 1,000 cars a day.
1914 Mass production of the bicycle meant that it became a cheap and practical form of personal transport.
1919 A Packard car established a world speed record in Florida, USA, doing 150 mph.1926 The Daimler and Benz motor companies merged to form Mercedes-Benz
1931 General motors Australia (1926) and holden's motor body Builders (1917) merged to form General motors holden.
1948 The first holden production car rolled off the line at General motors holden's plant at Fisherman's Bend, Victoria - the holden legend was born.
1960 ford Australia released the XK Falcon. www.automuseum.com/forddate.html
1970s Development of BMX and mountain bikes gave the bicycle industry a huge boost
1989 'Bike helmet' legislation. Australia passed the world's first first compelling cyclists to wear helmets.
Toyota Prius 2000
1990s Regulations requiring an approach to "zero emissions" from vehicles increased interest in new battery technology. Battery systems that offered higher energy density became the subject of joint research by federal and auto industry scientists. solar cars were first built by universities and manufacturers. The sun energy collector areas proved to be too large for consumer cars, however that is changing. Development continues on solar cell design and car power
1997 In Japan, toyota releases the Prius, the world's first mass-produced, electric/petrol hybrid vehicle
For more information about the history of the motor carinventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarssteama.htm
5.3 Text types
5.3 Text types
In recording or presenting ideas and information, students can use any one of a number of text types to communicate their learning. Text types can be LITERARY or FACTUAL and each type has a specific purpose.
- the Literary text types are Drama, Narrative and poetry.
- the Factual text types are Description, Discussion, Explanation, Exposition,
Narrative (including auto/biography), Procedure, Procedural Recount, Recount, Report and Response or review.
A Letter can be any one of a number of these text types but has a specific form.
5.4 Inclusion of Information and communication Technologies (ICTs)
From an idea of Doug Johnson, Director of Media and Technology, Mankato Public Schools, MN.