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Section 5 - Resources

5.1 Thinking and teaching strategies
5.2 The development of the motor car and bicycle
5.3 Text types
5.4 Inclusion of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs)
5.5 Glossary
5.6 Additional resources

5.2 Development of the motor car and bicycle

Leonardo da Vinci
Leonardo da Vinci
Sketch - 1490
1490 Leonardo da Vinci sketched prototype design of the modern bicycle - there is no proof that it was ever built.

1770 Nicholas Cugnot built a steam tractor that moved at walking pace.

1790 The forerunner of the bicycle, the Celerifere, was made by count Mede de Sivrac in France. It had a wooden frame and wheels and was propelled like a scooter with no steering mechanism.

1810 Scotsman john McAdam introduced a road surfacing method - tarmacadam.

1817 German, Karl von Drais developed a bicycle which could be steered. commonly known as the 'hobby horse', it had a padded seat and armrest.

1834 First electric vehicle was built by Thomas Davenport in the USA.

1835 The first known electric car was a small model built by Professor Stratingh in the Dutch town of Gröningen.

Hobby Horse
Hobby horse
1839 Kirkpatrick MacMillan built the first bicycle with pedals to drive the rear wheels.

1847 moses Farmer built the first two passenger electric vehicle.

1860 In France, Pierre and Ernest Michaux moved the pedals and cranks to the larger front wheel axle and the Velocifere (or Velocipede) was produced. Jean-joseph Lenoir invented a two stroke internal combustion engine that ran on coal gas.

1865 An electric vehicle was not considered a viable option until Frenchman, Gaston Plante, invented the storage battery.

1867 A Velocipede was built in goulburn, New south Wales, by W A George.

1870 The 'ordinary' bicycle or 'penny farthing' was produced. This bicycle, with its large front wheel and smaller rear wheel gave increased speed and a more comfortable ride for the cyclist.

1875 The first 'ordinary' bicycle was imported into Australia.

1876 The first four stroke internal combustion engine was invented by Nikolaus otto in Germany.

1877 In America, Albert pope, the 'father of the bicycle industry' built the columbia, a modern style bicycle.

1881 Frenchman Camille Faure improved the capacity and power of the storage battery.

1885 The first commercially successful 'Safety' bicycle design, with wheels of equal size, was built by john Starley in England. This bicycle had a chain drive to the rear wheel and an adjustable saddle. The third version of this bicycle, the Starley rover, was produced in 1888 and provided the general shape of bicycle frames for the next 60 years.

1885 Carl Benz in Germany, developed the first car with an internal combustion engine. It was a 3-wheeled vehicle, capable of travelling at 1/2 hp.

gottleib Daimler fitted an internal combustion engine to a wooden frame to create the first motorised cycle.

1886 Daimler developed a 4-wheeled 1 1/2 hp vehicle in Germany. It had a 1.1 kw petrol driven vertical internal combustion engine.

Ransom E. olds built his 3-wheeled steam car.

1888 The first patent for pneumatic bicycle tyres was issued in Britain to a Scot, john boyd Dunlop. Until this time, bicycle wheels were made of wood or metal and had no tyres.

1889 gottleib Daimler and Wilhelm Maybach combined the gasoline engine, gearbox and steering mechanism in a horse carriage frame - the 'horseless carriage'.

1890 The Humber bicycle was produced. most bicycles produced since this time have been based on this design.

1890 Daimler motor company was founded.

1893 Frank and Charles Duryea made the first successful gasoline powered automobile in the USA.

1894 The Panhard was the first car to be fitted with the engine at the front.

1895 In France, the Michelin Brothers improved on Dunlop's tyre by making a beaded edge, suitable for motor vehicles.

The Panhard-Levassor was the first car with an enclosed body. F W Lancaster built the first English car.

Herbert Austin, in England, built the first wolseley.

75 cars entered United States of America's first automobile race but only 2 finished, the Benz and the Duryea.

1896 In England, the locomotive Act (commonly known as the Red Flag Act) was abandoned and motor vehicles were allowed to travel at a maximum speed of 12 mph without pilots or red flags in front. The first Daimler was made at coventry, England. First road fatality was at Crystal Palace, london, England: "Mrs Bridgett Driscoll run down by a car going at a tremendous pace like a fire engine - as fast as a good horse could gallop.

The driver said he had rung his bell and shouted and that his car which had a maximum speed of 8 mph was doing 4 mph at the fatal moment."

Henry ford built a motor car with 2 horizontal cylinders and a 2-speed gear, called the Quadricycle.

Graft and Smith of Australia built the first front wheel drive petrol car. louis Renault, in France, built a car with a differential gear incorporated in the back axle, where, for practical purposes, it has remained ever since.

1897 H J Lawson introduced a Daimler motor omnibus to the streets of london. This was a 17-seater which operated in the Marble Arch - notting Hill Gate district.

1898 The coaster brake was fitted on bicycles. Many accessories became available and the bicycle was widely used for military, sport and general transport purposes.

Ford's quadricycle
1899 Henry ford founded the Detroit Automobile company. This venture failed and it was not until he developed a successful racing car with 4 cylinders and a top speed of 80 mph that he received financial backing.

1901 Electric taxi cabs appeared in New York.

1903 The ford motor company Limited was founded. Driver's licences became compulsory in England. The legal speed limit in England was raised from 12 to 20 mph.

1904 Henry Royce undertook to make a vehicle that would become the 'best car in the world'. He set exacting standards of workmanship. His vehicle was taken up by two partners in a motor vehicle agency firm, C S rolls and Claude johnson. Automatic car transmission was invented in the USA.

Silver Ghost
Silver Ghost

1908 The rolls royce company was founded with the introduction of the 40/50 hp Silver Ghost. The first model T Ford appeared.

1911 Henry Ford introduced the first moving assembly line and mass production of the automobile began in earnest at 1,000 cars a day.

FJ Holden
Holden FJ

1914 Mass production of the bicycle meant that it became a cheap and practical form of personal transport.

1919 A Packard car established a world speed record in Florida, USA, doing 150 mph.

1926 The Daimler and Benz motor companies merged to form Mercedes-Benz

1931 General motors Australia (1926) and holden's motor body Builders (1917) merged to form General motors holden.

1948 The first holden production car rolled off the line at General motors holden's plant at Fisherman's Bend, Victoria - the holden legend was born.

1960 ford Australia released the XK Falcon.

1970s Development of BMX and mountain bikes gave the bicycle industry a huge boost

1989 'Bike helmet' legislation. Australia passed the world's first first compelling cyclists to wear helmets.

Toyota Prius 2000

1990s Regulations requiring an approach to "zero emissions" from vehicles increased interest in new battery technology. Battery systems that offered higher energy density became the subject of joint research by federal and auto industry scientists. solar cars were first built by universities and manufacturers. The sun energy collector areas proved to be too large for consumer cars, however that is changing. Development continues on solar cell design and car power

1997 In Japan, toyota releases the Prius, the world's first mass-produced, electric/petrol hybrid vehicle

For more information about the history of the motor car

Bike history

5.3 Text types

5.3 Text types

In recording or presenting ideas and information, students can use any one of a number of text types to communicate their learning. Text types can be LITERARY or FACTUAL and each type has a specific purpose.

Narrative (including auto/biography), Procedure, Procedural Recount, Recount, Report and Response or review.

A Letter can be any one of a number of these text types but has a specific form.

Text type Purpose Structure Language
  • to focus attention on the characteristic features of a particular thing
  • Can be imaginative or objective
  • Can be about a person, place or thing
  • Can set the scene in an auto/biography or history text
  • often part of a literary text - drama or narrative Structure
  • Introductory paragraph about the subject
  • Series of paragraphs describing different aspects of the subject
  • concluding paragraph
  • Verbs in present tense
  • Adjectives to describe the features of the thing being described
  • to present information about more than one side of an issue - the for and against aspects, or perspectives, of an issue,
  • to form opinions and give reasons for them
  • to make informed decisions about an issue and make recommendations based on evidence
  • Debate, interview, newspapers articles, essay
  • opening statement presenting the issue
  • Arguments for and supporting evidence
  • Arguments against and supporting evidence
  • concluding recommendation, summary and conclusion
  • (alternatively, argument/counter argument a point at a time)
  • words that compare or contrast
  • words related to the topic
  • to explain why things are as they are, or how things work
  • to tell how things occur and gives reasons
  • to explain why things are alike or different, or how to solve a problem Structure
  • general introductory statement
  • paragraphs explaining how and why, a series of logical steps in chronological order
  • concluding statement
  • simple present tense
  • to argue a case for or against a particular position or point of view
  • to advance or justify an argument
  • advertisements, editorials, arguments, legal defence
  • point of view is stated
  • justifications of arguments presented in logical order
  • sum up argument and reiterate point of view
  • simple present tense
  • use dot points and elaborate
  • words to express attitude and feelings
  • nouns and verbs to convey emotion
  • to tell a story
  • to retell a series of events in the order they happened
  • can entertain or instruct
  • can have an unexpected outcome
  • can be literary or factual
  • can include description
  • background information about who, where, when
  • complication which begins the sequence of events
  • series of events - maybe in chronological order or as retrospective 'glimpses' in a current framework
  • resolution
  • personal comment or moral to the story
  • extensive use of nouns, adjectives, verbs and adverbs to develop the story
  • to tell how to do something through a series of steps or actions
  • a recipe, an itinerary
  • opening statement of aim
  • list materials required in order of use
  • process steps in procedural order
  • often illustrated with diagrams/photos
  • commanding words
  • technical and time words
  • adverbs to describe the things being done
  • precise language
Procedural recount
  • to tell the steps taken to achieve a goal, tells how something was achieved eg. a scientific experiment
  • science experiment, how something was made, a journey
  • title or introductory statement of the end result
  • list of the materials used to complete the procedure
  • a sequence of steps taken, may be numbered
  • verbs past tense
  • numbers may be used in the sequence
  • to retell events and incidents in the order in which they occurred
  • to reconstruct past experiences
  • letters, newspaper reports, television interviews, conversation
  • set the scene - who, what, where, when
  • recount events as they occurred
  • closing statement
  • past tense
  • chronological order
  • often in the first person
  • individual or group participants eg I, we
  • to present factual information about a class of things or describe the way things are
  • to classify, then describe, characteristics
  • lecture, research assignment
  • opening definition - general classification
  • series of paragraphs which entail a detailed description of qualities, function, uses, applications of the subject
  • concluding statement or summary
  • timeless present tense
  • technical words
  • no chronology
  • can use dot points for and within each section
  • to summarise, analyse and respond to an artistic work, literary text
  • can be a personal response or a general view
  • paragraph to introduce the text or work being responded to
  • a description of the features
  • an opinion and reasons for them
  • present tense
  • descriptive words Anderson, M & K 1997. Text Types in English 1, 2, 3. Macmillan, south Yarra, Victoria
  • From an idea of doug johnson, Director of Media and Technology, Mankato Public Schools, MN.

5.4 Inclusion of Information and communication Technologies (ICTs)

From an idea of Doug Johnson, Director of Media and Technology, Mankato Public Schools, MN.